Dr. Ir Marijke VANDEWAL

Military professor     +32-2-44-14112     Academic details

Research projects

Road Radar Jam

The goal is to assess the sensitivity of sensors (Radar and Lidars) on-board modern cars to jamming and deception.

Road Radar

In collaboration with industry and the ULB, the goal is to develop a multichannel radar able to detect trafic.

RMA is more specifically involved in the array processing, the detection algorithms and the tests.


A consortium lead by LuxSpace (LU) has introduced a proposal "SAT-AIS Phase B1 - E-SAIL" in answer to the ESA call ITT AO/1-6656/10/NL/AD which was accepted in September 2011. OIP Sensor systems (BE) will perform the activities related to the electro-optical (EO) payload as subcontractor of LuxSpace and signed the contract in december 2011. RMA has been asked as a subcontractor by OIP. The topic of the global proposal is a feasibility study of a spaceborne AIS (Automatic Identification System) extended with non-cooperative ship detection capability. The contribution of OIP/RMA is to examine whether an EO imager can be used as a complementary system for non-cooperative vessel detection. RMA will simulate the detection performance of the processing algorithms to be applied on the EO images. The Patrimony of RMA will receive 42000 euro for a contribution of 8 manmonths, which will be performed by Maj v/h Vlw Marijke VANDEWAL and Lt Mathias BECQUAERT.


The laboratory OMRA of the CISS department is asked regularly to perform radar and IR signature measurements amongst others in the domain of camouflage materials. To support these activities the activity OMRA-EXP has been created. A first forecast of duration has been set to 5 years, then the relevance of this activity will be reevaluated.


This study aims at modelling the behaviour of a THz wave in a strongly scattering dielectric, studying the THz wave scattering through dielectric materials inducing spectral distortions.


Modern aircraft structures have to comply with severe requirements: they have to be light as well as safe. These requirements lead to an increased use of composite materials in the aircraft industry. However, new materials also require new techniques in order to inspect aircraft components during production in a non-destructive way.

The primary goal of the DOTNAC project is to develop a safe, contact-free, high resolution, and potentially on-site NDT tool based on terahertz (THz) waves, which will be easy to integrate in industrial facilities, and allowing the detection of surface, subsurface and in-depth defects in a variety of composite materials used in aeronautics. The developed NDT tool will fill in the performance gaps that are still present amongst the established NDT techniques and will therefore be an extremely useful tool in NDT in terms of sensor fusion.


The general objective of this study is to investigate the potential benefit of fused high spatial and spectral resolution imagery and 3D airborne data for several defence applications in urban and harbour areas. The study will evaluate the improvement of the situation awareness and surveillance capability in complex urban and harbour areas using the addressed STARs.


This study aims at studying the THz domain with applications in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). One of the main development is the adaptation of Synthetic Aperture algorithms to THz sources in order to increase the cross-range resolution.


  1. Mathias Becquaert, Edison Cristofani, Johan Stiens, Marijke Vandewal, and Nikos Deligiannis. Compressed Sensing SAR Through-the-Wall Imaging with Side Information. In 26th URSI Benelux Forum, Brussels, Belgium, 2017. URSI.
  2. Edison Cristofani, Osama Mahfoudia, Mathias Becquaert, Xavier Neyt, François Horlin, Nikos Deligiannis, Johan Stiens, and Marijke Vandewal. Compressive Sensing and DVB-T-Based Passive Coherent Location. In 26th URSI Benelux Forum, Brussels, Belgium, 2017. URSI.
  3. Mathias Becquaert, Edison Cristofani, Gokarna Pandey, Marijke Vandewal, Johan Stiens, and Nikos Deligiannis. Compressed sensing mm-wave SAR for non-destructive testing applications using side information. In 2016 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf), number 2, pages 1-5. IEEE, May 2016.
  4. Edison Cristofani, Mathias Becquaert, Gokarna Pandey, Marijke Vandewal, Nikos Deligiannis, and Johan Stiens. Compressed Sensing And Defect-Based Dictionaries For Characteristics Extraction In Mm-Wave Non-Destructive Testing. In Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2016 41st International Conference on, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2016.
  5. Edison Cristofani, Fabian Friederich, Marijke Vandewal, and Joachim Jonuscheit. Non-destructive testing of aeronautics composite structures using UWB radars. In James D Taylor, editor, Advanced Ultrawideband Radar. High Resolution Materials, Sensor Systems, and Practical Applications, chapter 6, pages 237-270. Taylor & Francis Group, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 CRC Press 2016, 2016.
  6. Edison Cristofani, Fabian Friederich, Sabine Wohnsiedler, Carsten Matheis, Joachim Jonuscheit, Marijke Vandewal, and René Beigang. Nondestructive testing potential evaluation of a terahertz frequency-modulated continuous-wave imager for composite materials inspection. Optical Engineering, 53(3):031211, 2014.
  7. Fabian Friederich, Edison Cristofani, Carsten Matheis, Joachim Jonuscheit, Rene Beigang, and Marijke Vandewal. Continuous wave terahertz inspection of glass fiber reinforced plastics with semi-automatic 3-D image processing for enhanced defect detection. In 2014 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS2014), pages 1-4. IEEE, June 2014.
  8. Fabian Friederich, Carsten Matheis, Joachim Jonuscheit, René Beigang, Edison Cristofani, and Marijke Vandewal. Terahertz FMCW Inspection of GFRP Composites: Comparison with Conventional NDT Techniques and Enhanced Defect Detection Capability through Semi-automatic 3-D Image Processing. In 2014 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, pages 1-4, Tampa Bay, FL, 2014.
  9. C. Matheis, S. Wohnsiedler, F. Ospald, E. Cristofani, A. Brook, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, and M. Vandewal. Terahertz FMCW Inspection of GFRP Composites: Comparison with Conventional NDT Techniques and Enhanced Defect Detection Capability through. In Microwave Conference (GeMIC), 2014 German, pages 1-4, March 2014.
  10. L. Vega, P. Venegas, I. Saez Deocariz, M. Vandewal, A. Brook, E. Cristofani, P. Mounaix, J.-P. Guillet, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, and F. Ospald. Validation of a Novel NDT Technique with Infrared Thermography. In Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi 69 (2014), pages 493-498, Turin, Italy, 2014.
  11. M Becquaert, E Cristofani, and M Vandewal. On the applicability of compressive sensing on FMCW synthetic aperture radar data for sparse scene recovery. In European Microwave Week 2013, EuMW 2013 - Conference Proceedings; EuRAD 2013: 10th European Radar Conference, pages 9-12, October 2013.
  12. Anna Brook, Edison Cristofani, Mathias Becquaert, Ben Lauwens, Joachim Jonuscheit, and Marijke Vandewal. Applicability of compressive sensing on three-dimensional terahertz imagery for in-depth object defect detection and recognition using a dedicated semisupervised image processing methodology. Journal of Electronic Imaging, 22(2):21004, 2013.
  13. Edison Cristofani, Mathias Becquaert, and Marijke Vandewal. Performance of 2D Compressive Sensing on Wide-Beam Through-the-Wall Imaging. Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2013(636972):1-11, 2013.
  14. Edison Cristofani, Carsten Matheis, Sabine Wohnsiedler, Joachim Jonuscheit, Rene Beigang, and Marijke Vandewal. Capability of FMCW-THz Sensors for NDT of Aeronautics Materials. In 8th AIRTEC - Aerospace Sensors, Frankfurt/Mainz, 2013.
  15. C Matheis, S Wohnsiedler, J Jonuscheit, R Beigang, E Cristofani, A Brook, and M Vandewal. Inspektion von faserverst{ä}rkten Kunststoffen und Composite-Materialien unter Einsatz von Terahertz-Messtechniken. In DGZfP-Jahrestagung, Dresden, Germany, 2013.
  16. Julien Schockmel, Eric Mersch, Nicolas Vandewalle, and Geoffroy Lumay. Melting of a confined monolayer of magnetized beads. Physical Review E, 87(6):062201, 2013.
  17. M. Vandewal, E. Cristofani, A. Brook, W. Vleugels, F. Ospald, R. Beigang, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, JP. Guillet, P. Mounaix, P. Venegas, I. Lopez, R. Martinez, and Y. Sternberg. Advanced Inspection of Aircraft Materials with THz Sensors. In 8th AIRTEC - Aerospace Sensors, Frankfurt/Mainz, 2013.
  18. M. Vandewal, E. Cristofani, A. Brook, W. Vleugels, F. Ospald, R. Beigang, S. Wohnsiedler, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, JP. Guillet, B. Recur, P. Mounaix, I. Manek Honninger, P. Venegas, I. Lopez, R. Martinez, and Y. Sternberg. Structural health monitoring using a scanning THz system. In 2013 38th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), pages 1-2. IEEE, September 2013.
  19. A Brook, E Cristofani, M Vandewal, and J Jonuscheit. In-Depth Detection and Reconstruction Techniques using High-Frequency Microwaves for Non-Destructive Testing on Multi-Layered Composite Materials. In In Proc. of 12th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium (MMS 2012), Istanbul, Turkey, 2012.
  20. A. Brook, E. Cristofani, M. Vandewal, C. Matheis, and J. Jonuscheit. 3-D radar image processing methodology for non-destructive testing of aeronautics composite materials and structures. In IEEE National Radar Conference - Proceedings, pages 0806-0811, Atlanta, USA, May 2012.
  21. A Brook, E Cristofani, M Vandewal, C Matheis, and J Jonuscheit. Assessment of 3D Image Processing using FMCW THz Imagery. In 5th International Forum on Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging, number February, 2012.
  22. A. Brook, E. Cristofani, M. Vandewal, C. Matheis, J. Jonuscheit, and R. Beigang. A 3D THz image processing methodology for a fully integrated, semi-automatic and near real-time operational system. In Proceedings of SPIE, volume 8363, pages 83630E-83630E-12, Baltimore, USA, April 2012.
  23. Edison Cristofani and Marijke Vandewal. High-Resolution 3D SAR Imaging applied to Non-Destructive Testing of Multi-Layered Materials. In EUSAR 2012, number 2, pages 493-496, 2012.
  24. E Cristofani, M Becquaert, and M Vandewal. Ultra-Wideband , Non-Destructive Testing SAR Systems towards Compressive Sensing. In 1st International workshop on Compressed Sensing applied to Radar (CoSeRa 2012), number May, pages 14-16, Bonn, Germany, May 2012.
  25. E. Cristofani, A. Brook, M. Vandewal, C. Matheis, and J. Jonuscheit. Assessment of 3D Signal and Image Processing using FMCW THz Signals. In In Proc. of the OPTRO 2012, 5th International Symposium on Optronics in Defense and Security, Paris, France, 2012.
  26. E Cristofani, A Brook, M Vandewal, C Matheis, and J Jonuscheit. Synthetic Aperture Processing applied to FMCW THz Imagery. In 5th International Forum on Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging, Kaiserslautern, Germany, March 2012.
  27. Edison Cristofani, Anna Brook, and Marijke Vandewal. 3-D synthetic aperture processing on high-frequency wide-beam microwave systems. In Kenneth I. Ranney and Armin W. Doerry, editors, Proc. of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing Symposium 2012, pages 83610E-83610E-10, May 2012.
  28. Edison Cristofani, Marijke Vandewal, Carsten Matheis, and Joachim Jonuscheit. In-depth high-resolution SAR imaging using Omega-k applied to FMCW systems. In IEEE National Radar Conference - Proceedings, pages 0725-0730, 2012.
  29. J. Jonuscheit, C. Matheis, S. Wohnsiedler, M. Herrmann, R. Beigang, E. Cristofani, A. Brook, and M. Vandewal. Inspection of Aeronautics Multi-Layered Composite Structures using Terahertz Techniques. In 4 th International Symposium on NDT in Aerospace, Augsburg, Germany, 2012.
  30. M. Vandewal, J. Depauw, K. Rombaut, R. Beigang, J. Jonuscheit, P. Mounaix, I. Sáez de Ocáriz, R. Martínez Edo, A. Priegue, and Y. Sternberg. Development and optimization of THz NDT on aeronautics composite multilayered structures. In A. F. Mehdi Anwar, Nibir K. Dhar, Thomas W. Crowe, and Tariq Manzur, editors, Spie, volume 8363, pages 83630Y-83630Y-9, Kaiserslautern, Germany, May 2012.
  31. Nicolas Vandewalle, Lionel Clermont, Denis Terwagne, Stéphane Dorbolo, Eric Mersch, and Geoffroy Lumay. Symmetry breaking in a few-body system with magnetocapillary interactions. Physical Review E, 85(4):041402, 2012.
  32. Eric Mersch and Nicolas Vandewalle. Antiphase synchronization of electrically shaken conducting beads. Physical Review E, 84(6):061301, 2011.
  33. N Vandewalle, M Noirhomme, J Schockmel, E Mersch, G Lumay, D Terwagne, and S Dorbolo. Focus: Soap film has memory. Phys. Rev Phys Rev Focus, 27:7, 2011.
  34. Nicolas Vandewalle, M Noirhomme, J Schockmel, E Mersch, G Lumay, D Terwagne, and S Dorbolo. Hysteretic behavior in three-dimensional soap film rearrangements. Physical Review E, 83(2):021403, 2011.
  35. Fabian D. Lapierre, Alexander Borghgraef, and Marijke Vandewal. Statistical Real-time Model for Performance Prediction of Ship Detection from Microsatellite Electro-Optical Imagers. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 2010(Figure 1):1-16, 2010.
  36. E Mersch, G Lumay, F Boschini, and N Vandewalle. Effect of an electric field on an intermittent granular flow. Physical Review E, 81(4):041309, 2010.
  37. R Heremans, M Vandewal, and M Acheroy. Space-time versus frequency domain signal processing for 3D THz imaging. In Proceedings of IEEE Sensors conference, pages 739-744, October 2009.
  38. M Vandewal, R Heremans, and M Acheroy. Synthetic aperture signal processing for high resolution 3D image reconstruction in the THz-domain. In Proc of the 17th European Signal Processing Conference, pages 744-748, August 2009.
  39. Marijke Vandewal, Rainer Speck, and Helmut Sub. Efficient SAR Raw Data Generation Including Low Squint Angles and Platform Instabilities. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 5(1):26-30, January 2008.
  40. Marijke Vandewal. Investigation of High Resolution SAR-Systems aboard UAV-Platforms using Simulated Raw Data. PhD thesis, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, 2006.